index.htm  Thursday, December 10, 2015

Sep\index.htm

Poly Sci 413          Darrell Stasik        November 18, 2015

Constitutional issue - Domain Naming

Topic                                        File          Page

Constitutional Issue      -                  Interne        2

Government Accounting Office                 GAO            4

America On Line                              AOLcom         4

Cyber Crimes                                 CRJcon         5

Files                                        Files          6

International                                Inter          8

Java                                         Java           9

World                                        World          9

Presidential Action                                         9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Congressional Letter to President Obama.

Plans are being discussed to transfer the power to name web sites

outside the continental US. The letter expressed fears that US

property would be transferred outside the borders of the country.

According to the Constitution 

"Congress has the exclusive power to dispose and make all needful

rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property

belonging to the United States."

The issue has been in the open for some period of time. The internet

site patriotupdate.com has published some information on its web

site.

According to the source, the internet's root zone was developed by a

grant from the United States, and since 1997, it has been operated by

the National Telecommunications and Information Administration under

contract with the Department of Commerce. The department had planned

to transfer its management rights to the Internet Corporation for

Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), an international agency.

Property and Intellectual Rights. A practical example To University

of Michigan students is the University of Michigan web. The site has

been changed from umd.umich.edu to umdearborn.edu. The change was

seamless and the students noticed little change, except that

technology was updated.

This issue could change, if detailed plans are not prepared.

Java programming uses the internet for programming applications. The

programs in Java are free, but that doesn't mean they are of no

value. Three billion machines use java, including the Mars rovers.

The Internet Is Communication. Communication is essential for

commerce. International transactions can be on the internet, from

product advertising to product purchase. Funds can be transferred

electronically from one account to another. Products can be shipped.

Installation directions can be given over the internet with the help

of .jpeg picture file. The accuracy of the installation hints can be

of questionable value. Once I tried to install a shower knob, and the

experience was unsuccessful, after much communication with the

manufacturer. Fortunately some parts could be returned by automobile.

Another example of internet use is AOL, which is freeware. Many

people used to use the AOL browser. Here the web site used to be

critical. Now there are alternative ways to use the browser. In this

case American and Spanish were used. This gives an international

flavor to website use. New technology, like the cell phone, use

Google instead of AOL. Google is international with corporate offices

in California.

For a period of time, there was a attempt to tax the internet access.

AOL was in favor of this tax, but nothing came of it.

The stretch from communication to commerce is a long one. So far in

our studies, the commerce clause is the best approach to allow

Congress to control this licensing process.

In the letter to the President, the Congressmen asked that General

Accounting office to look into the matter. The case was made that the

root zone file constituted U.S. property. The constitutionality of

transferring US government property to a non-federal entity was

questioned. 1.

 

1. The chairmen of the Congressional both judicial committees:

Sen Chuck Grassley, R-Iowa and Rep Goodlatte, R-Va

Sen T Cruz, R-Texas and Rep Darrel Issa, R-Calif

signed the letter.

 

Government Accounting Office (GAO)

The article claims the GAO is looking for a way around the

Constitution and hand the US-founded and based over to globalists.

Congressman Ted Cruz believes that this is an unconstitutional theft

of intellectual property and would bypass congress.

The group of lawmakers sent a letter to the GAO, saying the plan to

relinquish oversight of internet domain functions to a global, body

raised questions about the administration's "authority to transfer

possession and control components of the internet's infrastructure to

a third party. The lawmakers point out that the Constitution says

"Congress has exclusive power "to dispose of and make all needful

rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property

belonging to the United States".

The internet's root zone file was developed by a grant from the

United States and since 1997, it has been operated by the National

Telecommunications and Information Administration under the contract

with the Department of Commerce. The Department had planned to

transfer its management rights to the Internet Corporation for

Assigned Names and Numbers, an international agency.

Lawmakers asked:

   1. Would transferring ownership of the internet domain name

   functions would cause government property to be transferred to

   ICANN.

   2. Whether the root zone file constituted U.S. Property

   3. Whether it was constitutional for that property to be

    transferred to any non-federal entity.

The internet should stay under U.S. control.

America On Line AOL

America On Line was an original internet company. It was one of the

most successful in starting up. CD disks were used for installing the

software. The service was free. Eventually AOL was so big it was

threatening to take over Microsoft. Then it proposed a tax on itself

and rivals. This proposal went nowhere. It did not get government

support on this proposal to charge for something that was free.

Times Change. The Google phone is now the preferred mode of

communication. The Microsoft Google battle is not over.

Now AOL uses the internet to transfer files to update its software

product. Microsoft uses its Secuity Essentials to update its security

system for its software to protect from infectious computer viruses.

Google simply says "your system is outdated".

AOL uses Email to communicate as does Google. Email is no longer as

effective as Internet messages.

The government must protect intellectual property, both domestic and

foreign. The Library of Congress keeps copy rights.

AOL Sites are in English (.com) and Spanish (.es) which are the

official languages spoken in America. Spanish is also spoken in

Europe in the European Union.

Cyber Crimes (CJR) 474)-  Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

The cyber crimes course was concerned with international

communication. This is a Federal agency, although with satellite

communications, the states can communicate with foreign countries.

The University of Michigan Cybercrimes class dealt with international

communications. The domain endings were created by an international

organization. The .de file ending was a German designation similar to

the United States .com.

.org is a free community ending for non profits, formerly used by the

Greater Detroit Free Net site started in Detroit at Wayne State

University, The Java programming (development) is site still in

operation, even though the Wayne site was moved to Oakland College

and was finally disbanded. The Java site was run sponsored by Sun

Corporation, which was bought out by Oracle. Sun manufactured servers

which are used to send message packets to routers hocked up to cyber

space.

.gov is a designation for Government sites. used by the Federal

government.

American On Line is a US software package. The Heward Packard

computer frequently gets an unknown bugcheck 1a on Windows 7. Maybe

the system is protecting itself from a Chinese cyber attack- although

the Chinese deny it is their fault. The White House has accused Cina

of other cyber attacks.

The Chinese system has 70,000 characters in their written system.

They claim their system goes back the beginning of written

communication.

(Lost material when I accidentally hit the delete key on my Microsoft

Disk Operating System).

Viruses are malicious programs that destroy a computer system.

Criminals also hack into computer systems and steal information.

Congress is interested in publicity, but it does not want its

information to be hacked. Privacy is a concern. A thief should be

punished. Executive action may be necessary.

Information and Data on Computer Files.

The most important thing about computers is files. Files are read and

store data or information.

When one signs onto the internet the terminal is routed to a file.

The file is read or written. On the internet, everyone has access to

the file (HTTP://www. and file extension). Information is recorded

there and stored on a computer disk. People sign on to the internet

can access the disk.

That disk can be read anywhere in the world to someone signed on to

the internet.

The files are on a domain name which must be registered so that some

order can be kept in the naming convention. Files can be stored over

time. My personal file at the UMD (www-personal.umd.umich.edu) is ten

years and is easily updated.  

Naming of the files or sites must be orderly and under a domain name.

The old system of file naming was called hypertext. A browser is used

to access the domain.

The process was:

         Start up a computer.

         Access a modem.

         Find a site using a browser.

         Get data or information.

         Email to attach and transfer files.

State Governments sites create files on (.gov) and voters can read

the data on the files.

All these processes need an orderly process. The U.S. took the lead

in this process. The Detroit Freenet was a part of this process in

1995. The work was done in the public domain. The site was helpful to

teach computer experts the procedures and to communicate between

members. The site ran out of contributors and was shut down.

Now the prospect of turning this process to a foreign country appears

possible. This is a threat to U.S. originality.

The group of lawmakers sent a letter to the Government Accountability

Office saying the plan to relinquish oversight of internet domain

name functions to a global body raises questions about the

administration's "authority to transfer possession and control of

critical components of the internet's infrastructure to a third

party."

The internet has intellectual property. U.S. Property should be

protected, even if the site is not used to acquire funds. Congress

should have oversight. The President should be concerned with

Congress's concern.

International Distribution.

Java is international. As a matter of fact, Java is on Mars in the

Mars Rover, moving across the planet.

Foreign Language accent marks, were in early Microsoft Disk Operation

System, (DOS), but not for Eastern Europe. Currently, Chinese

characters, all 70,000, are in the international computer systems.

The world is computerized. Courses in international Finances are

offered.

But the current computer system originated in the United States.

Google and Microsoft are in a battle to dominate. Why shouldn't the

Domain Naming conventions stay in the United States? The Republican

members of Congress and the Senate think so.

Java is freeware, and is not subject to taxation in the United

States. But if computer headquarters move to the European Union

(.eu), the story could change. The Union is based on duty taxes. This

would be another source of revenue to keep the union together.

Java

Java was the original internet programming language. Many people use

the developer technique for on line programs.

Some government sites, such as the national and Space Administration

NASA used Java. The U.S. government seeks to use the cheapest

software. Java is free.

Government direction is not needed for free software. The product is

freeware, meaning that it can be used at will.

Java Web Start is used to connect to the internet.

.com/products/

International

Java is international. As a matter of fact, Java is on Mars in the

Mars Rover, moving across the planet.

Foreign Language accent marks, were in early Microsoft Disk Operation

System, (DOS), but not for Eastern Europe. Currently, Chinese

characters, all 70,000, are in the international computer systems.

The world is computerized. Courses in international Finances are

offered.

But the current computer system originated in the United States.

Google and Microsoft are in a battle to dominate. Why shouldn't the

Domain Naming conventions stay in the United States? The Republican

members of Congress and the Senate think so.

Java is freeware, and is not subject to taxation in the United

States. But if computer headquarters move to the European Union

(.eu), the story could change. The Union is based on duty taxes. This

would be another source of revenue to keep the union together.

Action

The President should not allow the international commission to take

over internet domain naming conventions. His decision should be

overruled.