Mencius was a disciple of Confucius. Confucius thought a ruler should be moral. If a ruler was moral his subjects should listen to him. Moral routines were a sound method to govern. Oracle bone inscriptions were used in the first dynasties of the Shang to establish a sort of moral code "Mandate under heaven". These codes were not law books. The individual had a responsibility.
Confucius established a system using a collection of sayings that the rules should use. The conduct of the last Shang ruler was not moral. The Way in the Analect of Confucius had to be changed. 
Mencius thought than men were basically good, but needed to be taught. Mencius thought self cultivation was good. )
The feudal states were at war with each other, but recognized central government. 
Mencius would say that man destroys nature.
peasants paid taxes with money. The taxes were needed for the warring machine. Mencius would say to reduce taxes. 
Iron tools were needed to improve the economy. the well-field system grid system of eight families to a unit would help the peasants. They would be protected from excessive taxation.
Mencius - disciple of Confucius - people as good inside
benevolent- by example- go against nature
Mencius - 500 BC
True to original moral nature
Child falls into well - reaction?
1. Humanism is in heart
2. Xunza (400) BC - Human nature is evil 
(teach ouirselves to be good by ritual)
Mencius (self cultivation to be good)

Thought that Confucius overemphasized ties of family and friends. He taught equality or egalitarianism. He criticized elaborate funerals.
Moz- criminals executed  government function over states
Human nature (ritual (sharing) - Law
Ruler buys debates
Humanity moral - human trustworthy - kind to people
word of mouth - go back to Zhou
Come to court and present same case
empathize with people to unify
Moz every does good and evil
responsibility - ancestor
Why is Confucius wrong
Understand why.

Lord Shang  and Han Feizi
Lord Shang  
The book of Lord Shang - finance a large fighting force based on merit. Break with the past. Establish a link between the people and the ruler.
The people took more of a private interest in the land. Promotions were based on merit 
The rigid blueprint of the economy minimized the need for merchants and scholars.
Lord Shang Yang - advice - bring changes "good"
- To be a "king" or hegeman?
- Agriculture (surplus and tax) and warfare- two sources of power.
- Private and Public - align
How to pay taxes-  pass laws - establish bureaucracy, eliminate aristocracy
Lord Shang- new laws to prosper
people may not like it- moral ruler

Han Fei - stuttered- wrote like The Way and Integrity Classic
- detached ruler
- law equal for all men
- essential nature of man evil.
Han Fui    |
Han criticized prev for Legalism p32
Confucius - ritual, kindness, human ways

Xunzi- Quin rulers terrorize the people with authority.
Xunzi - true ruler takes care of the people
free market - low taxes - central planning products