China is a country that has maintained it's culture for thousands of years. Most of the culture that is known comes from inscriptions on oracle bones. Writing is a method of communication, using a complicated system of characters. Chinese characters continue to be used without significant changes until the introduction of simplified characters in 1949 (Hansen p104). A country that has developed a system of writing can pass on culture to future generations. China has a long history of interacting with other regions of Asia, especially from the steppes of Russia and Mongolia.
Sanskrit (Hansen p11) from India has been introduced into the country in the early fifth century. Some Sanskrit loanwords are still in use today. Chinese adopted Indian ways in music and art.
In this current age of cyberspace the history of China is very significant, especially considering the difficulty of non-Chinese people with the Chinese. China is a large country and shows a historical link with much of Asia along the steppes linking Asia and Europe. Communication has greatly improved from contact along the Silk Road through merchandise and goods and now with websites on the global internet connection. The Chinese characters are available on the web pages, but are very difficult to learn, even among the Chinese people themselves, who have taken as long as ten years to learn the characters.
China has put men in space on its own. It is a global economic player, expanding its field of contact and interaction with markets in other nations. It engages in financing U.S bonds in the trillions of dollars.
China has entered the world of culture, showing plays, such as the Beijing Opera. People in other nations can review the Chinese film Farewell My Concubine or the pinyin pronunciation (B…w ng Bi‚ Ji).
Automobile manufacturing is a new adventure for the Chinese. There are massive traffic jams in the suburbs of Pieking. Ford of dearborn Michigan is adding Chinese to the commands of driving directions of Sync. The driver gives voice commands to the device and the directions are given for the driver to follow to his destination. The computer system knows the driver's location and gives accurate instructions before a turn is desired. If the driver gets lost, the device will reroute the driver to get back on the path.
China has been influenced and influenced many cultures.
Khitan combined Buddhist and Chinese traditions in 10th century.
Khitan histories claim Abaoji brought together a loose grouping of tribes after the collapse of the Tang. The Khitan nomadic people used a khuriltai or congress to select a leader. The Khitan writing system resembles Chinese characters , the Japanese, Koreans and Vietnamese used Chinese characters to write their own language. (Hansen p305-309).
Abaoji melded Chinese and Khitan traditions. He replaced tribal rule with a dual system: one for the Khitan and the other for the Chinese. Although the two administrations appeared similar the northern administration had more access to the emperor.
Khitanian cities built cities on a grid with walls, but were inhabited in a nomadic way. The Khitan state took on the Liao name.
China always had contact with North and South Korea, Japan and Indonesia. Zing He sent an imperial fleet to South Asia, India and Africa in the 13th century. (Hansen p 378 )
For these nations and people, Chinese contact must haven extensive. Developing a system of writing take a lot of skill and time. With today's computes systems, all these systems are found on the interne. In the European Union languages from 27 different countries are found on the .eu web site. Material from the site can be retrieved in the chosen language. The European union is a combination of different states united in an effort to encourage trade and promote freedom. Much of the Chinese literi attempts to establish equality and fairness in their system of government. The moneylenders should not take advantage of the poor Chinese peasants in rural areas. There is not a lot of written material available to thoroughly investigate the history of the peasants, because they were poor, and unable to spend the time to learn the Chinese Characters. Only the rich had that luxury. The peasants had to toil in the fields in the growing season to maintain a living.
The criminal and civil justice of the Chinese is not like the western system. The commission of a crime is punishable by the local village magistrate. Convict labor was used to work on government projects. Only when the convict labor served his time was he allowed to go free. The motive or intent is not considered. The accused is brought before a magistrate and witnesses are questioned. If the accused committed the crime he is judged to be guilty, and must pay for the crime, either in corporal punishment of for a fine. This crime and punishment system has been modified over time. The Qin dynasty was the harshest enforcer of these codes. This dynast was replaced by a more reasonable regime with more of a heart to understand the human conditions.