Seeking a Standard
Three levels of ethical Judgement
God's command against slavery- No argument
Nature gives reason for right and wrong actions
1. Particular case eg Mary's abortion is wrong
Mary has blond or long hair - no relevance
Abortion is wring except to save mother,s life
killing another is wrong except in self defense.
3. The general principle - What makes a morally right - Theory
The morally right act - best result- Totally future orientated.
General enough. It can apply to all acts. But is it correct?
Are any actions good or bad in themselves(breaking promise is bad) adultery? Theory against Consequentiallism.
Some actions are bad, no matter what the consequences.
Rights based theory - No Consequentiallist. agrees.
Rule based, same as rights based
Violate rights - Breaking promises
Base actions on past not future results.
The only thing that Are of several are unrespond
determines the Primo facia rules
morality of an action of primo facia rights absolut rules
are the results. non absolute rule Kantian ethics
do not lie
primo facie -first view
Stronger right may overrule other rights
I am an Consequentialist.
Do y have the right principles?
Do we have moral rights?
Freedom of speech - free enterprise capitalism
even if consequences are bad( wage march)?
Claim a right - absolute right
Searches for truth using reasoning
Reasoning about normative data.
Kill one child to save 10 others
Best total value of the act for good
Must consider long term and subtle consequencesas well (eg precedent set)
This is to show that case is wrong
Keep secret to make right
Consequentialist. "in practice"
If act is right - for who?
Consequentialist.God's eye view
If act is right - What is good?
Consequentialist. is good in itself (not act as NonConsequentialist.
(Money is good - for what?)
Death denies experience
Living is good for happiness
Benthen - Quantity of pleasure.
Mill - quality as well as quantity of pleasure
Government leaders - more pleasure less pain
Mill high and low pleasure
Determine quality of pleasure by people who experience each
Getting an education - More on higher pleasure
Trust in human growth
Consequentialist. balance pleasure of all concerned
Something closer influence us more than something distant
Satisfaction of preferences as the good
- Goes with capitalism- people choose
-Preferences utilitarian make people genuinely happy
Restrictive freedom for the better good
Must choose best possible act
How are points determined
+ 15 +9 +8
-10 -3 -1
5 6 7
No of people vs how much you like
Likelihood of effect
Homeland security -play odds
Value of event now verses future event
Falsely assume that as good ethical theory must be simple and easy to apply
How does utilitarianism theory get applied as cost value analysis.
Workers safety in the work place
Look at lives lost verses freedom
Problems of cost benefit analysis
Dwarfing of soft variables
Define the value of human life in dollar terms
Willingness to pay for redistribution of risk
Wording of surveys
Irrationality of popular principles of risk
How much you would spend
Put highways in poor neighborhoods
Less to satisfy poor
Problems differ from criticism.