* Singer,s "Greater Moral Evil" Rule

"Our commonly shared morality"

No Obligation to singer

Rejection of rules for distribution according to rights and deserts.

Moral code

- it must be practical

- Gain support from everyone

- Assume people are better off than they are.

Ideals worth striving through

Idealistic vs Realistic Morality]- Standards to strive for

- Arthur's realistic for recommending policies but not philosophical.

Christians strive for saintliness (Saint)

Singer says what you can do as an individual

Arthur accepts CMA but:


Deserts - work harder.

Deserve because of past acts.

CMI Reduction by absurdity - use body parts - give an eye

Desert - work harder but need to alleviate suffering - grant relief

Rights - Rights of poor people

Negative and positive rights <= obligation

Negative rights - reasonable claim - Do not have to do anything - property

Positive rights - give an eye or food for a child.

Arthur - Give child food - contract or commitment (not natural)

Aquinas - Poor have a natural right.

Parents give child a contract of rights.

Utilitarian - Obligate to prevent suffering - No rights

Before election

Socialist => Liberal = Conservative <= Libertarian

Wealth and keep property

Economic Liberty vs help poor = Equal opportunity.