* Singer,s "Greater Moral Evil" Rule
"Our commonly shared morality"
No Obligation to singer
Rejection of rules for distribution according to rights and deserts.
- it must be practical
- Gain support from everyone
- Assume people are better off than they are.
Ideals worth striving through
Idealistic vs Realistic Morality]- Standards to strive for
- Arthur's realistic for recommending policies but not philosophical.
Christians strive for saintliness (Saint)
Singer says what you can do as an individual
Arthur accepts CMA but:
Deserts - work harder.
Deserve because of past acts.
CMI Reduction by absurdity - use body parts - give an eye
Desert - work harder but need to alleviate suffering - grant relief
Rights - Rights of poor people
Negative and positive rights <= obligation
Negative rights - reasonable claim - Do not have to do anything - property
Positive rights - give an eye or food for a child.
Arthur - Give child food - contract or commitment (not natural)
Aquinas - Poor have a natural right.
Parents give child a contract of rights.
Utilitarian - Obligate to prevent suffering - No rights
Socialist => Liberal = Conservative <= Libertarian
Wealth and keep property
Economic Liberty vs help poor = Equal opportunity.