Some statistics are bad. Many are good.
Who are creating databases?
Why? guess or not
Empirical- No value judgment. Facts. What is. Not should be
Normalitive - Subjective - Describe ideal
Identify what the writes should be.
Authors are biased, even in empirical.
Text book p4 Box- have baby- no license
How do we know what we know? Different levels.
1. Direct observation and experience
2. Personal inquiry
Social scientists - Seek reality
Argument and belief.
Read and believe
Scientist- Test what we think
Assume casual relationship
Lung cancer from smoking
Terms Problistic reasoning - Patterns to source and effect
When causes occur the effects occur
But not absolute
Final note on tradition and authority
As child is exposed - good or bad
Errors in reasoning
1. Inaccurate observation.
Crime scene- No two people agree on a crime scene
:. Write it down.
Get around - Do resurvey to get same results.
3. Select Observation.
* Stereotypes. Make efforts to look for other cases
4. Illogical reasoning. Gambling If I lose I should win next time.
Use system logic explicitly
* Foundations of social science
Pre Modern- Things are as they seem
Modern - Human subjectivity - Enlightenment
Post Modern- No objectivity exists Only our point of view is real.
1. Logic - Theory
2. Observation Data Use given observation (criteria)=> conclusion
3. Data Analysis. Logically observe look for pattern of social regularity.
Exceptions in pattern do not invalidate - People who vote are 18 (but not felons)
Look to total number or aggregate
Patterns are regular but change over time.
Attribute. Describe an object
Variable. Grouping of attributes- Young, female, Asian
Terms P18 Independent variable (IV) =>causes
Dependent variable (DV) explanation - outcome variable. Variable determined by IV
Idiographic- Explain in detail
Examine a single thing
What caused a person to become a shop lifter
few possible causes something to happen. One can not apply to everyone
Nomothematic - Focuses on a group of events
Can not say about one participant case in a group
Inductive reasoning - Particular to general. Observation to theory
Deductive Reasoning General to particular.