Chap 2

Definition. Paradigm

1. Logical explanation for various phenomena and patterns. Theory to prevent from in by a fluke

2. Take notes of observed patterns

3. Shape research - Point the way to likely discoveries

Underling Theory -Paradigm

Fundamental Model or frame of reference to organize our observations and reasoning.

Kuhn. Definition of per

Model that describes how things are or how they work.

Should shape what we see and what we feel.

Data is the same

How we perceive it.

America - All men are created equal.

Equal protection

Civil rights and liberty immigration

Terrorist threatened us verses new paradigm. Changed outlook

Two paths of theory

1. Macro -Large aggregate of society.

2. Micro Issues of small groups

One paradigm Positivism Development of social science. Agustus Comte - Society can be measures by five sences rather than God or religion

Scientific model

Begin - Theory

Test Operationalize your variable- Define and specify what we measure.

Hypothesis- What we expect to happen.

Educated guess

How we measure variable we are defining

Question in a survey

Variable - Logical groupong of attributes

Attribute male opr female

Various ways to operationalize a variable

Education - grades,type of degree

Political trust

2 Questions on NEC.

1.Officials donít care about me.

2. People donít listen to me.

Political efficacy. Invented in 1950

Theory- Hypothesis -Operationalize

Humpty Dumpty- Word means what wechoose it to mean.

Rely on defination that have been around for several years.

Operational variable- True or reliable

Deduction logic -Inductive Logic

Two may bridge

P48-49 Paper

blank _____ is related to attitudes toward womens liberation.

See 1 and 2

Null hypothesis - There is no connection .

Singer gender schools make for better efficacy- She proved the null


Deductive theory -

1. Specify a topic

2. Specify the range of phenomena

3. Identify and specify major concepts and variables

4. What is known aout relation between variable.

5. Reason logic for variable to specific topic