1. Logical explanation for various phenomena and patterns. Theory to prevent from in by a fluke
2. Take notes of observed patterns
3. Shape research - Point the way to likely discoveries
Underling Theory -Paradigm
Fundamental Model or frame of reference to organize our observations and reasoning.
Kuhn. Definition of per
Model that describes how things are or how they work.
Should shape what we see and what we feel.
Data is the same
How we perceive it.
America - All men are created equal.
Civil rights and liberty immigration
Terrorist threatened us verses new paradigm. Changed outlook
Two paths of theory
1. Macro -Large aggregate of society.
2. Micro Issues of small groups
One paradigm Positivism Development of social science. Agustus Comte - Society can be measures by five sences rather than God or religion
Begin - Theory
Test Operationalize your variable- Define and specify what we measure.
Hypothesis- What we expect to happen.
How we measure variable we are defining
Question in a survey
Variable - Logical groupong of attributes
Attribute male opr female
Various ways to operationalize a variable
Education - grades,type of degree
2 Questions on NEC.
1.Officials donít care about me.
2. People donít listen to me.
Political efficacy. Invented in 1950
Theory- Hypothesis -Operationalize
Humpty Dumpty- Word means what wechoose it to mean.
Rely on defination that have been around for several years.
Operational variable- True or reliable
Deduction logic -Inductive Logic
Two may bridge
blank _____ is related to attitudes toward womens liberation.
See 1 and 2
Null hypothesis - There is no connection .
Singer gender schools make for better efficacy- She proved the null
Deductive theory -
1. Specify a topic
2. Specify the range of phenomena
3. Identify and specify major concepts and variables
4. What is known aout relation between variable.
5. Reason logic for variable to specific topic