Chapter 4 Box page95  page125

Different measures but both right

52% part faculty

70 % credit loads

Full time faculty in research

Research design

3 Purposes- Need more than one

  1. Exploration


    1. Curiosity.
    2. Test feasibility
    3. Develop method to be employed

Pro - Valuable in social science research. Breaks new ground. New theory

Con Seldom provides satisfactory answers. Can hint or suggest


  1. Description. Main purpose of Social research. Consensus





Scientific Description more accurate than casual observation

Qualities are descriptive, but not good in why


  1. Exploration – Why

Social issues connect to politics.


Logic of mathematical explination

Find factors account for causes

  1. Correlation p100

Changes in one are associated with changes in the other.

Associations are not necessarily  causes of changes

McDonalds causes obesity

  1. Time order – Causes take place before effects.
  2. Non spurious – Nothird variable to explain away the observed causes

False criteria.

  1. Research can show some causes not complete
  2. Exceptions do not disprove a causal relationship.
  3. Cause can be true even though do not apply to majority.

Necessary and                             sufficient cause

Necessary cause                       If present generate

Must be present for                   effect but not only

Effect to cause                           possible cause


Units of Analysis

Difference from unit of analysis and aggregate.. – Typical CRJ 300 –individual –unit of analysis


  1. Typical
  2. Characterize
  3. Originate


Look at individual groups- Lower income. More unemployment or type of work.


Student or


Social Interaction

5. Social artifact.


Unit of analysis- Unlimited

Pitfalls about unit of analysis

  1. Ecological fallacy (groups or set of systems)

False – What you learn about a group tells about the individual. P109

  1. Reductionism. Reduce to simple, but complex issue.

Time dimension

Cross sectional – snapshot

  1. Population in point of time. Conclusion based on one point
  2. Would ;one over time
  3. Do another survey


Trend – Changes over time. Very difficult and cost money at universities

  1. Trend- Changes over time – census
  2. Cohort- Specific subpopulation as they change over time. Look at student in 20 years(age group)
  3. Personnel study – Follow some people over time (some people)


Strategies – Identify units of analysis

Unit of analysis 14 women tom boy

Palestine – social artifact

Elements of research proposal

P144 Paper stop at 1

  1. Identify  problem or objects
  2. Literature review
  3. Subjects Who
  4. Measurement
  5. Methods –Data collection
  6. Analysis – Analyze research
  7. Schedule
  8. Budget (p125)