Chapter 5 Operational and measuring
P131 People doubt – Ability to measure
Not definitely but determine causes.
Measuring the stuff of life because we are dealing with people
Three classifications of what science measure.
1. Observable Object
2. Indirect observable
3. Construct – Can not be observed.
1. Conception What we need to use
Consencious about meaning
Indicator use to measure
Sign of presence or observation of the concept I.E. compassion
Clear between concepts and reality
1. Real – tool had to define
2. Nominal assign to a term with a claim
3. Operational – specify how a concept is measured
Conceptualization to measure
Nom define – Willingness to extend rights to opposite
Operational – What questions to ask
Measuring in real world
Reliable and valid. Measure concept
Interpret results – be clear and explicit
Four levels of measurement
Yardstick – Measure success or failure
On target or not on target.
Reliability and validity
We can decide on reliability by repeatedly applying over and over again. Close
Results – data collected over repeated observation
Ask people versus bothioa scale.
Single observer or researcher – Much subjectivity – Add more research
Asking questions they do not know is unreliable.
Validate –Measure the accuracy of concept examined.
1. Face validity –grievances verses morale.
2. Critical Ratio. Measure relative to some external criteria,
3. Construct Validity Relate between variable
4. Content validity – How much the measure covers the reason or meaning.
Caused based on female