Chapter 5 Operational and measuring

P131 People doubt – Ability to measure

Not definitely but determine causes.


Measuring the stuff of life because we are dealing with people



Kaplin 1954

Three classifications of what science measure.

1.  Observable Object

2. Indirect observable

3. Construct – Can not be observed.

1. Conception What we need to use

Consencious about meaning

Indicator use to measure

Sign of presence or observation of the concept I.E. compassion

Clear between concepts and reality


1.  Real – tool had to define

2. Nominal assign to a term with a claim

3. Operational – specify how a concept is measured

Conceptualization to measure

Political tolerance

Nom define – Willingness to extend rights to opposite

Operational – What questions to ask

Measuring in real world

Reliable and valid. Measure concept

Interpret results – be clear and explicit

Four levels of measurement

  1. Nominal      variable exhaustive and exclusive (label) baseline M & F
  2. Ordinal variable logically rank in order- tolerance Agree N disagree
  3. Interval- distance separate variable Ranked order, equal  distance IQ
  4. Ratio – based on true zero. Have all above (income)


Yardstick – Measure success or failure

On target or not on target.

Reliability and validity

We can decide on reliability by repeatedly applying over and over again. Close

Results – data collected over repeated observation

Ask people versus bothioa scale.

Single observer or researcher – Much subjectivity – Add more research

Asking questions they do not know is unreliable.

P158 Tests

  1. Test retest
  2. Split Half- Test  to see what works out better.
  3. Widely used method
  4. Check out researcher.

Validate –Measure the accuracy of concept examined.

1.      Face validity –grievances verses morale.

2.      Critical Ratio. Measure relative to some external criteria,

3.      Construct Validity Relate between variable

4.      Content validity – How much the measure covers the reason or meaning.

Political tolerance


Caused based on female