France was a republic and Russia was under the czar (divine right monarchy).
A. France had gone through the Dreyfus affair when a Jew was accused unfairly of being a traitor. He was retried and a kangaroo court of the (military) aristocracy found him guilty. as a result, the integrity of the government was questioned by most of the country. There were a dozen or so political parties and the government fell frequently. (elab on politics of  3rd rep here).
B. In Russia the czar ruled in a hierarchy with a divine right(etc)
A Dumas parliament was installed, but was ineffectual (where and why(- Rev of 1905). Russia had a large army,  but the transportation system was inadequate. The railroads could not supply the army with mobilization capabilities.
Germany was under the command of the Hohenzollern princes. The Bundestag Reichstag was a parliament replacing the reichtag. The German states were (sort of) subservient to the Prussian authority.
When Austria invaded Serbia the Germans supported the military action
The Russians fought both the Austrians and mobilized to fight the Germans. Russia was not as industrialized as the Germans, but concentrated industry in centers such as Moscow and other cities. (elaborate on conditions)
France wanted to support the Russians and to require the Germans to fight on two fronts. The Russians had supported the Germans under the Kaiser Bismark, but switched to support France, which supplied capital to develop Russia (in what way? specify (RRs))
France had industrialized early but did not complete the process quickly. 
Russia was still agrarian to a large degree, The czar had liberated the surfs. and there was a migration to the cities. The soldiers in Russia were mainly uneducated peasants. The army was run by the czar. Both governments made military service mandatory.
Russia was run by a bureaucracy and France was run by the aristocracy in the Chamber of deputies.(Deputies
The Russian czar was also familiar with the french revolution and feared an overthrow. The Germans wanted both French and Russian territories. This made the French - Russian alliance more palatable.
(censored in Rus) The mass media also made the plight of the industrial proletarian more visible. wages not keeping up with prices.
Russian wheat was sold to the west.
Russia was at war with the Ottoman empire (1877 ?) and Germany was building the Orient Express (Berlin - Baghdad) railroad.
If Russia broke with Germany, she could establish (mil alliance) diplomatic relations with France.
(This may touch in some of the major themes pared by the question, but it needs to be developed more fully, specifically,  it needs to address the fundamentals of the two governments more inexplicably - the uniqueness of the Dreyfus affair for anti-Republican, and the outcome of the 1905 Rev in Rus. If you dos so, your essay will improve in future.)