Aristotle: Virtue (Morals) Ethics


What is virtue? virtue = excellence (arele)

2 kinds of virtue

  1. Intellectual: Wisdom, understanding, prudence (I acquire by instruction and take time)
  2. Moral, justice, courage, generosity, compassion, friendship.

- These are acquired by habit (imitation) and experience. "habit" ethos, disposition

- We are not born moral, but with potentiality to become moral (immoral).

- They are not engendered by nature, nor contrary to nature.

Exp. We become just, loving, .... by doing just moral acts.

Conditions of moral virtue: An action is virtuous if it meets the following conditions:

  1. If the agent knows what he is doing.
  2. If the agent chooses his actions and for its own sake.
  3. If the agent acts from a firm stable character.

5 Things. What is virtue?

Virtue is a quality disposition which involve as a choice according to the mean realities to us as individuals, determined by a rational principle, the way a man of practical wisdom would determine it.

Mean: mid point between 2 extremes, excess and deficiency. These extremes are evil.

Excess Virtue Deficiency

X_________________X____________________X Not mathematical

Evil Generous Evil


Criteria of choice: Must avoid extreme

Explain - right amount, circumspect, native

======> Principle

Standard of moral evolution

What should I do? _______ Do not lie

guide rules

Deliberate and |_|_|_|_|_| conflict

make the right choice |_|_|_|_|_| Daily activities

Specific situation

Highest good? Highest moral principle? Happiness?

Account for a moral principle.

Function of man as man? Rational action => Virtue

Standard of moral obligation

What is virtue? Can work with the person. Not be afraid.

Proxio: action practice.

1. By doing | Take place in family first

2. |

Disposition- habit by time child is 20 years old

Step into character without noticing.

inclination - feeling by emotions

Character- Moral education


Potendia: Power, capacity

A child raised by animals not moral or immoral

set down with a friend

Episode in time

Art of making judgements

() instill in child

( )

( ) moral quality (virtue)

( )

( ) Character

Moral character: interpretation of the moral qualities instill in the mind of the individual

Jung and Freud can learn the character of the father and mother by studying the child.

They determine the growth of the child

Acting virtuous does not necessary mean moral person.

Aristotle- Must be

  1. Individual must know. Conscious. Punishment is not because something was done wrong. It is to learn
  2. I should choose the action. What should I do?
  3. My action should issue from a firm moral character. Subtle point.

Morally consistent character. Can not have a holiday from being moral. I can not be moral for one community and immoral for another community.

Today- paralysis of moral character in the work place.

choice- feeling? -wish? psychological make up? No.

Choice. Function of reason- Aristotle deliberation

Undertake an activity of deliberation-

moral investigation in moral problems

evolution - cause of action available in this situation

Reflect on job, income, family.