Utilitarianism. - Mill principal of Utility
Supreme moral goal: A action is moral ( right, good) in as much as it promotes the greatest happiness: immoral (bad, wrong) is as much as it does the reverse.
"happiness"= pleasure and the avoidance of pain.
"unhappiness" = pain and the absence of pleasure.
Ass. Pleasure and freedom from pain are the only desirable ends: and all the desired things are a means to some pleasure.
|The happiness included is the happiness of all concerned|
Objective: To say the highest end of life is pleasure is demeaning.
Ans. We should distinguish between higher and lower pleasure[ these correspond to a distinction between 2 facilities in human nature- spiritual (intellect) and sensual.
- What matter is the maxim of the highest pleasure?
- How do we distinguish the 2 types of pleasure?
Now an educated human being who knows the highest pleasure would not change his life to the life of animals...
- No intelligent person would consent to be a fool.
- No educated person would want to be ignorant.
- No living person would want to be selfish...
- A cultivated human being requires more time to be(come) happy and is capable of more pain than an uncultivated human being, but would not sink into a lower kind of life...
Is it pride? A source of dignity? Of power?
- such a person would always feel imperfect because of the possibility of human life are limitless...
- And yet it is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied, better to be a Socrates dissatisfied, than a fool satisfied -
Obj 2. Many who are capable of the highest pleasure succumb to the lowest pleasure.
and Weakness of character. Explain
Obj 3. The principal of utility is too lofty for humanity.
What makes an act moral?
Virtue - mean
Deity - Unconditional
Moral will ________ domain of an action
Associating pleasure with sensual is a mistaken preposition
Human beings are capable of more than one type of pleasure.
oral, religion, social
2nd ans. Not in quality of pleasure.
spiritual has a special kind of pleasure
A mind is desirable of knowledge
human element is dead
Know the difference between higher and lower pleasures.
Pleasure is peculiar to human beings
10 objections to these principles
People give up higher pleasures to lower pleasures
Nourish character - not mental ideas.
Principal is a-
Pleasure not in feelings but based on principal of spiritual happiness- satisfied, fulfilled, inner contentment.