Epistemology - Theory of knowledge.

1. What is the source of ideas?

2. Test, verification.

3. Nature of knowledge.

1. Goal of skepticism. The suspension of judgement on the nature of things.

- The basis (Aristotle) of his philosophy, for each judgement there is an equally true[bouncing] judgement. We can not decide what is definitely true.

2. Skepticism is an ability. We are )9unable): to discover the nature of things.

Suspension of judgement. Stands the intellect. The out ow cliece of mind. The mind turns its attention away from the ultimate question to practical living as the feeling of peace and confidence.


The philosopher wants to know the nature of the world because it is puzzling and use this knowledge in the organization of his life.

God exists


G. Washington is the first president of the U.S.

- For every occasion there is an opposite account. How do we arrive at the suspension of judgement?

1. )9Consider the Senses.): (untrustunity see book).

- Take a painting. The eye sees depth. The sense of touch does not.

- Honey is sweet to the tongue, unpleasant to the eye.

- Rain water is beneficial to the eye but not to the lungs.

An apple is smooth, sweet and yellow. Could it have more qualities? Do we perceive all its qualities? Do we know the apple itself? Do we know it only as it appears?

Ex. The senses cannot apprehend the nature of external objects.

2. )9Intellect): [mind]. It can not apprehend what the object is itself.

- Our perception of things depend upon our physical condition, hating, loving, angry, sick, healthy. Is there a normal state of perception?

- Again, appearances differ depending on age -cold, distance, rest, motion.

Next apprehension. I like "the" ...

Is there a standard?

- How do I know the if the standard is false?

- If true, it is true either with a verified proof? If without proof, is it unconvincing?

Next - An object looks big from a distance, small from a different distance. Is there a standard of truth?

Certainty - sure


History of thought. Establishment of true values.

Can we know physical reality?

How can I know myself if I don't know anger, love, hate?

Can we know anything with certainty? No.

Empiricus. empirical- scientific.

relates to the senses - senses are experiential.

Activity of senses.

Rational, systematic way.

Western civilization

6 B.C. - 7AD. Reached its highest point of power (Greek) until Alexander the Great.

Largest of body of philosophy knowledge.

Knowledge of Greek and passion.

Judgement=> What is nature of world. - Don't bother?

Because he can not know. All the knowledge is unconvincing.

- suspend judgement.

Accept the morals of your society.

Mission of the philosophers. How can you lead a good life?

Skepticism- Can you come up with another philosophy?

2. Terms of skepticism.

Can you sleep if you have unanswered questions?

Equally convincing arguments - Some proof.

Equally unconvincing arguments.

How do you know?

What is the source of knowledge?

1. Mind.

2. senses

Conditioned to what we see.

Woman discovered a bean, after years of shopping.

Do we discover our family?

See a thing in the fullness of itself.