Comparative Analysis of Vekhi and Pavlov-Silvanskii. The Vekhi group believed in utilitarianism, Pavlov-Silvanskii believed in history as a determinate in shaping Russia's future. The views are different models to use in shaping the future of the politics of Russia. According to Schapiro, the series of essays published in a volume called the Vekhi Group (Landmarks), were critical of the lack of values (Nihilism) demonstrated by the revolutionary groups. The ends justifying the means was not a strong philosophy to follow. He suggested that the values of religion should not be abandoned by the atheist revolutionary groups. Stuve was one of the authors of the articles. He was one of the founders of the Kadets, and believed the group had sacrificed the use of truth for the revolutionary cause. An elitist ruling party was to rule the country for the common good. In Kistyakovskr's essay, an absence of legal principal makes it impossible for the courts of to acquire their proper place in the life of the country. Gershenzon stated " such as we are, so far from dreaming of union with the people we ought to fear fear the people more than any executions by the government and bless the government which alone with its prisons and bayonets protect us from the peoples fury. Doestovsky opposed utilitarian philosophy and saw the dangers in revolutionary philosophies. Both saw the dangers of a government with unbridled power. The liberals were not as bad as the radicals, who saw no limits on the power of the revolutionaries. Pavlov-Silvanski wrote on the reforms of the Petrine period of Russia. The Enlightenment shaped his world view. He used comparative analysis between Western Europe and Russia. German materialism and French and English positivism were used. He analyzed the economic basis of social institutions. The revolution of 1905, Bloody Sunday, changed his view. He gave up on the monarchy and joined the Kadet party. He changed his view as a historian. He then supported the historic peoples struggle as a struggle for liberty over despotism.