Ivan Vasil'evich Kireevski Kireevski, in "On the Nature of European Culture and its Relation to the Culture of Russia", discussed bringing Russia, of his time, into the modern world of the West. He claimed that the Western thought was empty and had destroyed European culture. He thought that man was made of a spirit which needed to be expressed. This spirit was more than just logical thinking. Europe went through changes that Russia did not, because of the circumstances of history. Russia had to fight off Polish, Hungarian and Tatar invaders. This activity stifled the intellectual development of Russia even though Russia previously was part of Europe. However the Europeans were all involved in the science of rational living. They looked at each other as examples to compare, and failed to see any drawbacks to rational and logical living. Thus Russia could look back to tradition with a more clearer view than other European cultures. The Eastern church brought much of the Greek tradition, while the Roman church followed the logic of Decartes. Russia also avoided the abstract logic of the Moslems. Europeans used the science and mathematics of the Arabs, and there were many good Russian mathematicians. But at the same time Russia utilized Persian, Chinese or indian philosophies who used the inner conditions of the thinking spirit. However Russian Slavs easily shed their pagan ways and became Christians. The church never sought to become the state. St Vladimir sought to pardon all criminals, but was not successful. In Russia the land belonged to the commune. Spiritual integrity war more important than living a logical life at every event. Kireevski stated that the Germans put material on a high plane while the Russian valued spirituality.