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Timing-Aware Dynamic Thermal Management in High-Performance Embedded Systems

Today, more and more high-performance embedded applications such as avionics and flight control, space shuttle systems, vehicles, and instrumentation in medical and emergency facilities, demand greatly increased computation capabilities from processors. Meanwhile, semiconductor manufacturing technologies keep scaling processors to smaller feature sizes. As a result, power density in processors becomes increasingly high. Due to the high power density, processors are prone to overheating, which affects not only reliability but also performance, power and cost of embedded systems. As such, thermal management becomes a prominent issue in system design. On the other hand, high-performance embedded applications demand increasingly stringent need for timing guarantees. As high-performance embedded systems become more and more thermally-constrained, the issue of how to provide timing guarantees under the constraints of thermal behavior and thermal control mechanisms must be addressed.

The objective of this research project is to provide timing-guaranteed services for real-time applications while maintaining safe temperature levels for processors in high-performance embedded systems. This project focuses on development of timing-aware dynamic thermal management methodology, algorithms design analysis and system implementation in a variety of problem domains. The project seeks to significantly advance real-time system design by furthering understanding of the fundamental thermally-constrained and timing-constrained problems in high-performance embedded systems. Furthermore, this research provides an important foundation for addressing external environmental effects (such as thermal environments) on real-time systems.

Principal Investigator

  • Dr. Shengquan Wang

Graduate Students

  • Jun Liu (doctoral student)
  • Nan Wang (master student)

Collaborators

  • Dr. Riccardo Bettati, Texas A&M University
  • Dr. Jian-Jia Chen, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany
  • Dr. Nathan W. Fisher, Wayne State University
  • Dr. Xue Liu, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Publications

  1. J. Chen, S. Wang, and L. Thiele, "Proactive Speed Scheduling for Real-Time Tasks under Thermal Constraints," in Proc. IEEE Real-Time Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS), April 2009. [pdf]
  2. N. W. Fisher, J. Chen, S. Wang, and L. Thiele, "Thermal-Aware Global Real-Time Scheduling on Multicore Systems," in Proc. IEEE Real-Time Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS), April 2009. [pdf]
  3. S. Wang, J. Chen, Z. Shi, and L. Thiele, “Energy-Efficient Speed Scheduling for Real-Time Tasks under Thermal Constraints,” in Proc. IEEE Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA), August 2009. [pdf]
  4. S. Wang and J. Chen, “Thermal-Aware Lifetime Reliability in Multicore Systems,” in Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Quality Electronic Design (ISQED), March 2010. [pdf]
  5. S. Wang, J. Chen, J. Liu, and X. Liu, “Power Saving Design for Servers under Response Time Constraint,” in Proc. Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS), July 2010. [pdf]
  6. S. Wang, Youngwoo Ahn, and R. Bettati, “Schedulability Analysis in Hard Real-Time Systems under Thermal Constraints,” in Real-Time Systems Journal, Vol. 46, No. 2, pp. 160-188, October 2010. [pdf]
  7. N.W. Fisher, J. Chen, S. Wang, and L. Thiele, “Thermal-Aware Global Real-Time Scheduling and Analysis on Multicore Systems,” in Journal of Systems Architecture (JSA), Vol. 57, No, 5, pp. 547-560, May 2011. [pdf]
  8. M. Ahmed, N.W. Fisher, S. Wang, and P. Hettiarachchi, “Minimizing Peak Temperature in Embedded Real-Time Systems via Thermal-Aware Periodic Resources,” in Sustainable Computing: Informatics and Systems (SCIS), Vol. 1, No. 13, pp. 226-240, September 2011. [pdf]
  9. S. Wang, J. Liu, X. Liu, and J. Chen, “PowerSleep: A Smart Power-Saving Scheme with Sleep for Servers under Response Time Constraint,” in IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems (JETCAS), Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 289-298, September 2011. [pdf]
  10. S. Wang, W. Munawar, J. Liu, J. Chen, and X. Liu, “Power-Saving Design for Server Farms with Response Time Percentile Guarantees,” to appear in Proc. IEEE Real-Time Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS), April 2012. [pdf]
  11. X. Chen, X. Liu, S. Wang, and X. Chang, “TailCon: Power-Minimizing Tail Percentile Control of Response Time in Server Clusters,” in Proc. International Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems (SRDS), October 2012. [pdf]
  12. S. Wang, W. Munawar, X. Liu, and J. Chen, “Power-Saving Design in Server Farms for Multi-Tier Applications under Response Time Constraint,” in Proc. International Conference on Smart Grids and Green IT Systems (SMARTGREENS), May 2013. [pdf]
  13. S. Wang, J. Chen, and X. Liu, “Green Computing by Putting Idle Servers into Sleep,” Green scheduling sessions of APS, July 2013.
  14. S. Wang and J. Chen, “Energy Saving for Real-Time Tasks in Multi-core Systems under Voltage Islands,” under preparation.
  15. N. Wang, S. Wang, and J. Chen, "Thermal Management for Periodic Real Tasks in 3-D Multi-core Systems," under preparation.

Acknowledgement

This work is sponsored by NSF CAREER Grant No. CNS-0746906 and Rackham Faculty Research Grant at the University of Michigan.